Choiф lauфsд


1. Pronunciation

There are 3 sounds written as “e” and 2 sounds as “o”. The “e” sounds are [ə], [e], and [ɛ]. The “o” sounds are [o] and [ɔ] (see "special letters" below). All letters are pronounced in the same way as those in Indonesian. 

Nasalization is represented by duplicating the nasalized vowels, such as aa, ee, ii, oo, uu





2. Tone Markers

The four tones of Mandarin Chinese are used in order to make it simpler as opposed to Hokkien's original seven tones. This is done since Mandarin Chinese is a widely studied Chinese language in the world, making it familiar to many people. 

Inspired by the Hmong writing system that utilizes Latin letters as tone markers, letters are used as the tone markers. However, unlike Hmong which uses Latin letters for both the tones and text, letters from the non-Latin alphabet are used in order not to confuse the reading of the words and their tones.

Mohkien uses Cyrillic letters as tone markers. The sequence of these tone markers follows that of their original sequence in the list of Cyrillic letters. For convenience, tones also can be written by using the number 1,2,3,4.

1st tone2nd tone3rd tone4th tone

3. Special letters

E e [ㄟ], as "a" in "lay", For ex. beя = to buy
O o [o], as "oa" in "boat", For ex. hoя = good
[ㄜ], as "a" in "allow", For ex. mngф = to ask
AE ae [ㄝ], as "ea" in "bear", For ex. baeя = horse
OH oh [ɔ], as "o" in "fox", For ex. ohд = black 

4. Nasalization

You need to pay attention to nasalization because it gives different meanings.

Duplication of the nasalized vowels denotes nasalization. For example, suaд = sand; suuaд = mountain, paaeж = flat.

5. Tenses

Past Tense

koiф (for a longer time)

Have you been to Indonesia? = Luя khiф koiф Inяniж boж? (you go koiф Indonesia boж)

liauя (for a shorter time)

I have eaten/ I ate = Waя ciakд liauя (I eat liauя)

Present Tense


We are watching TV. = Waяlangж tiя khuuaф tienдsiя (we tiя see TV)

Future Tense

Simply put the adverb of time denotes a future tense sentence.
He will go tomorrow. = miaяcaiф khiф (he tomorrow go)

6. Conjunction

The word "eд" is a connecting word used to link a noun and an adjective.

the blue book = lamж sekф chaekф (blue color eд book)


This word is used for its function in the Indonesian language. For example,

Connecting a noun and an adjective

the blue book = chaekф yangф lamж sekф (book yangф blue)

Connecting two clauses

I want to eat what he eats = waя aiя ciakд yangф ciakд eд (I to want to eat yangф he to eat eф)

7. Question marker


It is placed at the end of the sentence to make it an interrogative sentence.

Do you have? = Luя boж? (you have boж)

8. Passive


This word is used for passive verbs without the doer.
The book is taken = chaekф tiokф giaж (book tiokф take)

9. Unit of measurement

The most common unit of measurement for objects is "kaiж". It is attached to the quantifier. For example, "gohфkaiж" means "5 of something".


Lienфlohkд tuuaд


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