1) Pronunciation

All letters are pronounced in the same way with those in Indonesian, except the "e" and "o" (see explanation at "special letters" below). Nasalization is represented by a tilde on the base vowel, such as Ãã, Ẽẽ, Ĩĩ, Õõ, Ũũ, Ɛ̃ɛ̃, Ɔ̃ɔ̃.

A. Vowels


B. Consonants


C. Tone indication

 -ж -ф -я

2) Tones

A. Third version

Inspired by the Hmong writing system that utilizes Latin letters as tone markers, Mohkien uses Cyrillic letters as tone markers in order not to confuse the tone markers with the words they represent. The sequence of these tone markers follows that of their original sequence in the list of Cyrillic letters.

1st tone = "д"

2nd tone = "ж"

3rd tone = "ф"

4th tone = "я"

B. Second version

The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th tones are shown as the following:

tone marker

The inspiration comes from the Burmese writing system. A customized font is made to write these tone markers, and the problem is the inability to include this customized font online.

C. First version

Tones are adopted from Chinese Mandarin hence there are 4 tones but the tone markers are displayed as the following:

1st tone = a period = "."

2nd tone = a colon = ":"

3rd tone = a colon and a period = ":."

4th tone = double colons = "::"

3) Special letters: ə, e, ɛ, o, ɔ

Ə ə [ㄜ], as "a" in "allow", For ex. məngф = to ask (another variant)

E e [ㄟ], as "a" in "lay", For ex. beя = to buy

Ɛ ɛ [ㄝ], as "ea" in "bear", For ex. bɛя = horse

O o [o], as "oa" in "boat", For ex. hoя = good

Ɔ ɔ [ɔ], as "o" in "fox", For ex. ɔд sekф = black color

4) Nasalization

Letters with a tilde on top represent the nasal pronunciation of its corresponding letters without a tilde. You need to pay attention to this because it gives different meanings. For example, suaд = sand but sũaд = mountain.

5) Punctuation

Any punctuation marks are allowed for the Third Version of tone marking. Space ” ” is given before writing a coma “,”, except decimal numbers (ex. 3,25)

The following rules are allowed for the First Version of tone marking:

Colon “:”, semicolon “;”, and period “.” are generally NOT used in writing because it may cause confusion with the tone markers. However, it is allowed to be written with numbers, such as time (ex. 21.45 or 9.45 pm)

The logical OR operator “||” indicates the end of a sentence like that in the Burmese language, corresponds to the full stop/period of the Latin alphabet.

6) Tenses

A. Past

I. koiф (for a longer time)

Have you been to Indonesia? = Luя khiф koiф Inяniж boж? (you go koiф Indonesia boж)

II. liauя (for a shorter time)

I have eaten/ I ate = Waя ciakд liauя (I eat liaoя)

B. Present


We are watching TV. = Waяlangж tiя khuaф tienдsəя (we tiя see TV)

C. Future

Simply put the adverb of time to denote a future tense sentence.
He will go tomorrow. = miaяcaiф khiф (he tomorrow go)

7) Conjunction

A. eд

The word "eд" is a connecting word used to link a noun and an adjective.

the blue book = lamж sekф chɛkф (blue color eд book)

B. yangф

This word is used as its function in the Indonesian language. For example,

I. Connecting a noun and an adjective

the blue book = chɛkф yangф lamж sekф (book yangф blue)

II. Connecting two clauses

I want to eat what he eats = waя aiя ciakд yangф ciakд eд (I to want to eat yangф he to eat eф)

8) Question marker


It is placed at the end of the sentence to make it an interrogative sentence.

Do you have? = Luя boж? (you have boж)

9) Passive


This word is used for passive verb without the doer.
The book is taken = chɛkф tiokф giaж (book tiokф take)

10) Unit of measurement

The most common unit of measurement for objects is "kaiж". It is attached to the quantifier. For example, "gɔфkaiж" means "5 of something".


Lienфlɔkд tũaд


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